Thursday, May 21, 2020

Analysis Of Thomas Hobbes s The Leviathan Essay

Menwa Arakelian Mrs. Sauter World History/ Block D 13 December 2014 Philosophies There are many differences in the views of these three men on the topic of human nature and government, but it was ultimately these philosophers who used natural law to explain the aspects of humanity, it was these men’s ideas who were key to the era of Enlightenment and life beyond it. Born on April 5 1588, Thomas Hobbes came to be known as one of the greatest philosophers in the world. In his most famous work, the Leviathan, he sets forth his ideas on government and law. Thomas Hobbes believed that all humans were born with sin. He believed that all humans were evil, cruel, greedy, and selfish. Even though he thought we were naturally evil, his theories also stated how they can be kept under control. He argued if countries were establish powerful and strict government, the people would have no choice but maintain order. He also believed that they should enter a social contract. When signing the Social Contract, you agree to give up your freedom for the better of the societ y. In other words, the government places limitations on you for everything. In the quote from Leviathan, he talks about the transfer of power and strength from the common people to one man, or one legislature. This is because Thomas Hobbes thinks the only type of government that is capable of keeping order in society is an absolute monarchy. In opposition to Hobbes’s ideas, a man with the name of John Locke came about withShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Thomas Hobbes s Leviathan 2457 Words   |  10 Pages Laviathan, Thomas Hobbes most important work and one of the most substantial philosophical texts of the Seventeenth century, was written largely as a response to the political violence and turmoil of England’s civil wars. In Leviathan, Hobbes, using science and reason as a foundation, attempts to create a concrete and methodological solution for peace and political stability. In the context of a historically violent and fear stricken period in which Leviat han was written, it is logicalRead MoreAnalysis Of Thomas Hobbes s Leviathan 1268 Words   |  6 Pagesinterests under a common power. In Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury writes profoundly on the arrangement of legitimate government and the structure of society by calling to attention the constant vying for â€Å"power after power that ceaseth only in death† (Hobbes, 56). Through his depiction of human interactions, Hobbes claims that there is a perpetual longing for ease and protection, knowledge, and fame (Hobbes, 56-57). When desires are conflicting, Hobbes claims that there is fierce competitionRead MoreAnalysis Of Thomas Hobbes s Leviathan 1622 Words   |  7 PagesIt could be argued that Thomas Hobbes’s claim in Leviathan that a person has no right to challenge his sovereign’s law or decision is flawed because such judgements should serve public good. Since the sovereign power’s authority to make laws or decisions has its source in its sub jects, these judgements should reflect what subjects think to be good or evil, instead of prescribing how people should think. However, this argument does not take into account that although there are cases where people canRead MoreAnalysis Of Thomas Hobbes s Leviathan 1891 Words   |  8 PagesIn his book, Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes writes that human beings’ state of nature is one of constant war. He claims that man’s fundamental natural instinct is that of self-preservation, and that this leads to a violent, â€Å"every man for himself† sort of world in which there are no rules, no morals, and all persons have the freedom to do as they please. In other words: our state of nature is anarchy, rampant with chaos and conflict. The only viable alternative to this, Hobbes argues, is voluntary subjectionRead MoreAnalysis Of Thomas Hobbes s Leviathan 1087 Words   |  5 PagesThomas Hobbes (1588 - 1679) is one of the most important philosophers of the modern age. He was associated with the most advanced thinkers of his time, Galileo, Gassendi, and Descartes. He was the first thinker of modernity that, from a psychological and anthropological analysis, attempts to establish the need for the civil state (Collins 2013). This is the subject of his most famous political work Leviathan, which is a compendium of all his philosophical thoughts (Collins 2013). Hobbes makes observationsRead MoreAnalysis Of Thomas Hobbes s The Book Leviathan 1957 Words   |  8 PagesThomas Hobbes was a 17th century philosopher, who argued that human beings are fundamentally equal by nature, and we infer that humans live under the rule of absolute sovereign. â€Å"From that law of nature by which we are obliged to transfer to another such rights as, being retained, hinder the peace of mankind, there followeth a third, which is this that men perform their covenants made†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Hobbes 89). Hobbes tries to hold back peace, in order to make it seem like everyone is equal. This can createRead MoreAnalysis Of Thomas Hobbes Leviathan And Adam Smith s The Wealth Of Nations1852 Words   |  8 Pages Most important among the many big ideas in Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan and Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations are those that deal with human nature and how to create and maintain social order. In this paper, I will argue Hobbes’ lack of optimism, and Smith’s lack of pessimism in their theories of human nature, and will also discuss how our idea of social order changes once these aspects are taken into consideration. Hobbes’ theory of human nature begins with the statement that all men are createdRead MoreDo Metaphors Really Matter?1208 Words   |  5 PagesDo metaphors really matter? : An analysis of the use of metaphors in rhetoric Introduction Josà © Ortega y Gasset, a renowned philosopher once wrote: â€Å"The metaphor is probably the most fertile power possessed by man†. Metaphors form a pervasive part of rhetoric, because they have a great influence of our cognitive process. (Pauley, 2014) The use of metaphors in rhetoric is very common; as metaphors have the power to make people act despite the ideologies that are being put forth. In this essay, theRead MoreThomas Hobbes: Nature and Origins of Human Thought, Emotion, and Society2678 Words   |  11 PagesIntroduction: The philosophies of Thomas Hobbes are inarguably essential foundations in materialistic thought. Idealists during his time believed that there reality is made up of concepts and nonmatter. In response to the challenge of explaining concepts that seemed only explicable through idealist thinking (such as thoughts and emotions), Hobbes used logic and reasoning to develop materialist theories – some impressively similar in nature to neurobiology. His pessimistic views of society are drawnRead MoreThe s Claim That Freedom Within Nothing More Than The Absence Of Physical Or Legal Constraints1730 Words   |  7 PagesCritically assess Hobbes s claim that freedom consists in nothing more than the absence of physical or legal constraints. In Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes attempts to set up the stage for the understanding of the nature of freedom. The account holds much significance, because, what people understand freedom to be matters a great deal to their past and present life. According to Hobbes, freedom implies â€Å"the absence of opposition (by opposition I mean external impediments of motion) †¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Hobbes, 2005, P157)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Problem of Population Growth and the Solution of...

The Problem of Population Growth and the Solution of Population Planning INTRODUCTION Human population growth, overpopulation, and earth’s biological carrying capacity have been concerns of scientists for many years. In 1679 Antoni van Leeuwenhoek estimated that the maximum number of people Earth can support is 13.4 billion and estimates have continued to vary drastically since then (Cohen, 1995). There are many ecological indicators, including desertification and water problems, which point to the likelihood that we are approaching our limit. There are many sub issues within this overall problem that must be addressed in order to work towards solving this problem, including sustainable living, water shortages, etc. However,†¦show more content†¦This was then multiplied by the area of the region and then all the regions were summed. Another method used by analysts was fitting mathematical curves to historical population sizes and extrapolating them into the future. A third method was to focus on a single assumed constraint on population, such as food, and how much of that constraint is needed for survival. However, this method does not take into account other constraints. A fourth method used was to reduce multiple requirements needed for survival to the amount of a single factor. For example, food, paper, timber, etc. were reduced to the area of land required to grow or produce them. A fifth method used involves the idea of population size being constrained by multiple independent factors, or the sum total of constraints. Liebig’s law of the minimum is used here, which states that the population size of a species is constrained by whatever resource is in shortest supply. The sixth method used involves the idea that population size is constrained by multiple interdependent factors and scientists have used system models to describe this. This method is probably the most accurate since it allows for changes in endogenous and exogenous variables. It takes into account that carrying capacity is always changing and is not stati c. Another idea that has been brought up, but not employed, is that nations should calculate their human carrying capacity separately. However, resources needed oftenShow MoreRelatedOverpopulation And The Problem Of Overpopulation1388 Words   |  6 Pagescondition wherein the total population of a particular region far exceeds the carrying capacity of the region. Although the term by and large refers to the ratio between population and the available area, the ratio between the population and available resources cannot be ignored. First, the rate at which the population is growing; the data compiled by the United Nations shows that the world population grew by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010. Second, the distribution of population; with China and IndiaRead MoreEssay on The Growing Population1374 Words   |  6 PagesA Growing Population: Problem or Excuse? The current worldwide population is around 6.9 billion and is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050 (Baird). This projected population number is down from the once predicted 16 billion (Baird) and while some are not concerned others are worried by any increase in population. Population growth is discussed in the articles â€Å"Too Many People?† by Vanessa Baird; â€Å"Population Control: How Can There Possibly Be Too Many of Us?† by Frank Furedi; and â€Å"The PopulationRead MoreOverpopulation Crisis1246 Words   |  5 Pagescould also be part of the solution. A few of these factors are discussed in an interview with Melanie Asriel, the Psychological Sciences Instructor at WKU of Glasgow, Kentucky. According to Melanie Asriel, â€Å"The lack of family planning and contraceptive use has contributed to this problem†¦contraception, education, and the including of available abortion†¦all kinds of education, such as, sex education, contraceptive educat ion†¦ would be my solution to an over-population problem† (M. Asriel, personal communicationRead More A Cleaner Future: A Comprehensive Pollution Prevention and Reduction Program1378 Words   |  6 PagesA Cleaner Future: A Comprehensive Pollution Prevention and Reduction Program Introduction Pollution is a major problem globally and it becomes greater as the human population continues to rise exponentially. One of the major problems with increased population is higher waste production, which creates increased air, soil, and water pollution. To resolve this problem waste reduction must be of primary importance in preventing and reducing pollution. Waste management can be an expensive undertakingRead MoreThe Current World s Population1409 Words   |  6 Pagess population is approximately seven billion people, and the amount of time that it takes for the population to increase by another billion is decreasing with each billion. According to the World Population Data sheet, there will be about eight billion people by the year 2020, and this is due to its continuation of growth (Southwick 159). A clear understanding of the causes and what might possibly happen is the first step to dealing with the population crisis. The world s human population hasRead MoreThe Problem Of The Overpopulation Problem1122 Words   |  5 PagesPerhaps one solution for the overpopulation problem is to provide all children, who have reached puberty with Reproductive Education License of Four (REL4). REL4 is a two-step solution program that will provide education and contraception, which will decrease the population growth. Jennifer Weeks (2015) article, â€Å"Global Population Growth,† discusses the number of women without access to birth control. Research conducted by a nonprofit organization showed nearly 225 million women globally, includingRead MoreEffects Of Population Pollution Essay1464 Words   |  6 Pages Population around the world is growing rapidly each year, which is unfortunately causing negative impacts on the environment. Each day the air around us is becoming more polluted as the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere caused by human activities increases each day. As populati on continues to gradually increase, it is causing harmful effects in terms of air pollution. An increase in the number of people directly varies with the pollution that is emitted into the environment. MoresoRead MoreIndia and China Overpopulation Essays1203 Words   |  5 PagesHuman population is drastically increasing by the second, with the addition of one billion people every 12 years. Overpopulation creates an abundant amount of issues ranging from environmental and social problems. Nations attaining copious amounts of population introduce a wide array of problems to the world around and such nations. These environmental problems consist of but are not limited to lack of resources such as food and water; which may cause malnutrition in large populations, poor air qualityRead MoreOverpopulation can be described as the failure of the world’s resources to sustain the population.1600 Words   |  7 Pagessustain the population. The limited natural resources have increase d challenges for countries facing this. This paper covers the effects of overpopulation in the world today. The current worlds population is approximately six billion people, and the amount of time that it takes for the population to increase by another billion is decreasing with each billion. It is estimated that they will be about eight billion people by the year 2020, and this is due to its continuation of growth† (Southwick 159)Read MoreGlobal Warming And Its Effects On The World Essay1499 Words   |  6 Pagesthere exists one underlying cause, overpopulation. The human population has reached a record 7,467,374,326 people as of 11/27/2016, and is growing at an exponential rate (Current World Population). With the Earth’s number of occupants multiplying so rapidly, our need for resources escalates alongside it. According to Edward O. Wilson, a sociobiologist at Harvard University, â€Å"the planet can hold 10 billion people at the uppermost population limit.†(How Many People Can Earth Support?) Once we reach that

The Benefits of Attending a Community College Free Essays

The Benefits of Attending a Community College Some prospective college students tend to overlook the many benefits that come along with attending a community college. This may be because they aren’t aware of the advantages or they don’t have a true understanding of how this type of educational training can benefit them. Whatever the case may be, year after year large numbers of people opt to go straight from high school into four-year universities. We will write a custom essay sample on The Benefits of Attending a Community College or any similar topic only for you Order Now Although that is of course a fantastic route to take, people should also give some thought to the notion of attending a community college. One of the best things about attending this type of educational institution is the smaller class sizes that are offered. At traditional universities, sometimes classes can have anywhere from 50 to 400 students at one time. This may not seem like a big deal, but the larger the class, the less opportunity students have to get one-on-one interaction with their professors. This may not be important to some people. However, being able to contact their professor with questions or even for tutoring sessions is vital to many people. In fact, being able to have an accessible professor can make the difference in whether or not some students pass or fail. So, one of the great things about choosing these types of establishments are the fact that they promote more student and teacher interaction. Therefore, whenever someone has issues, there’s a better chance that those problems will actually be addressed. Another great thing about attending a community college is that it costs much less than the traditional four-year institution. This is extremely important to note, especially now that the cost of education is rising and more people are struggling to stay financially stable. Being able to get a good education at an affordable rate is something that is sometimes hard to come by when people choose to attend traditional colleges. The good news is that the average community college allows people to get a good education without having to pay an arm and a leg. Lastly, another benefit these institutions provide is the ability for students to transfer their course credits to traditional universities. In other words, if someone decided to take this particular route and then one day they decided that they wanted to attend a four-year university, they wouldn’t have to feel like they wasted their time. There are many benefits that come along with attending a community college, but many people might not realize it. As the landscape of education continues to change, more and more people are beginning to take this route instead of the traditional path. How to cite The Benefits of Attending a Community College, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Pornography In The Media Essays (1058 words) - Sex-positive Feminism

Pornography in the Media It started by way of messengers and scribes, evolved through the presentation of newspapers and radio, brought us together with television, and now serves us world- wide via the ever-popular Internet. It is the mass media, and even from the earliest days of its existence, it has contributed greatly in ways that both enlighten and enrich society, and ways that deteriorate and perplex it. It is not a surprise to learn, then, that the mass media is the most powerful source of information we have, and nothing else in today's world influences public perception quite as heavily. Unfortunately, however, most of what is broadcast or transmitted in the news today is with reference to the chaotic condition of our planet, or something else that society as a whole sees as detrimental or damaging. But the news on television is not the only type of media taking the criticism of society. Other forms of mass media, specifically movies and television programs containing pornography and violence have been heavily criticized. The underlining concept to be debated here is that society is negatively influenced, specifically, by these images of pornography and the result is increased violence against women. This assumption, and it is indeed only an assumption, is completely fallacious, however, as no concrete and completely conclusive evidence has ever been formulated in support of the theory. The key premise here is that the mass media does not cause undesirable social behaviour and in actuality, the media people should not be dubbed as the bad guys. They simply use their power in the most constructive ways possible in order to promote their ratings and popularity. One way to do that is to concentrate on what sells: sex, violence and disaster. Having said this, why is it then, that many in society still believe otherwise; why do they continue to believe that pornography is evil and is a major cause for violence against women, specifically rape? There are many reasons for this misinterpretation and through the following few points, an attempt will be made to show that pornography has very little to almost no correlation with violence against women (of course nothing is absolute in society). In order to demonstrate this, it must be made evident that pornography is not evil and does not cause undesirable social behaviour by displaying nude women in sexually explicit circumstances. Thus, it is important to indicate that women are not treated only as sexual objects through the media. This is done in an attempt to quash any traces of evil in pornography. Subsequently, a second point, that some may consider to be completely bizarre, can be addressed; that pornography actually reduces the amount of violence against women. For thousands of years, sex itself has been considered evil and revolting. This is exactly why the concealment of the sex organs and teaching feelings of shame toward human sexuality is so common worldwide. These same feelings of shame are the chief reasons that sex is considered a personal and private matter. Contrary to the beliefs of many, the mass media did not create these settings; society creates this image. In some societies, women have no reservations with regard to living their entire live completely naked, while in other societies, females cover themselves from head to toe, only revealing their eyes. The media has been bombarded with criticism, overwhelmingly from the female community, relative to the amount of sexually explicit material that is published in magazines and that appears on television and in the cinemas. A common argument against pornography is that the media portrays women as being nothing more than sexual playthings and objects to satisfy male sexual desires. As before, the media once again, is not to be held responsible for creating this image; these views are products of society. It would be absurded to assume that women in this society are treated as sexual objects only because the media releases or broadcasts pornographic material. A magazine associated with make-up and skin care, for example, will quite obviously not be concentrating on much else. Such a magazine would not display pictures of women who mountain-climb or women who water-ski; only images of make-up and text referring to skin care would be relevant. Clearly, society does not consider women to be beings who's only purpose in life is to worry about make-up and skin care; but why are the complaints only directed towards pornographic media then? The answer to this question may be more complicated, however, what remains obvious is that the media does not portray women as only being able to fill male sexual desires. To say that pictures featuring nudity, etc, are making objects out of women is foolish. One should consider females who pin-up posters of male rock stars or children who collect hockey or baseball cards. Society, however, does

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Animal Farm- Comming to power essays

Animal Farm- Comming to power essays In George Orwells Story Animal Farm we read about the overthrown of an established power system by the characters that, at the beginning, dont fully realized that they usurp the same power. Animal Farm takes place at the Manor Farm, in England. One day an aged boar, Old Major, was preaching to his fellows animals, comrades from the farm, about a dream he has. His sermon was about great visions and beautiful horizons for all the animals in the world. The enemy of all the animals was man , tyrant that feeds on the misery of all the animals. Only his overthrowing could end their doomed, tragic lives. The rebellion against their enemy was coming. The old pigs idealistic visions of the animal world in which all animals are equal, had been exciting news for all the four-legged gatherers, who had been listening to the eye-opening slogans of freedom, especially to the pigs who settled down in the straw immediately in front of the platform. The story of the Orwells novel Animal Farm continues revealing more and more the pigs hungry craving for power. Soon after the brilliant speech of Old Major, the boar died but his dreams about the animal freedom, executed only through the rebellion against the man, were not forgotten. Particularly the pigs, considered the smartest of all the animals in the farm, were eager to get started the necessary preparations for the future rebellion against the man. Two leading brains of the preparations were Snowball and Napoleon. Not long after the death of Old Major, the rebellion became the reality. The master of the Manor Farm, Mr.Jones ,was driven out from the farm by the hungry and neglected animals. The farm, was renamed, by the new owners, the Animal Farm. A new era of freedom had come to the insignificant farm in England. The freedom of all animals could echoed in the bleating of sheep : Four legs good, two legs bad. Since Ol...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Chemistry Study Tips

Chemistry Study Tips Studying chemistry can be stressful and feel overwhelming. There is no magic formula for learning chemistry, but you can develop an effective strategy for success. Whether youre in middle school, high school or college, these simple steps will get you on the right track. Basically it involves not getting behind, doing your own work, and not psyching yourself out: Dont procrastinate!Cramming does not equal learning. If you wait until the night before a test to start studying you will suffer, your grades will suffer, etc. Chemistry problems take time to work. Chemistry concepts take time to master.Dont ProcrastinateIts worth repeating! In chemistry you build from one concept onto the next. You need a solid knowledge base to progress.Try Flash CardsHey, they are used in elementary and primary school because FLASHCARDS WORK. Some of the information gets learned while making the cards and the rest can be learned during practice. You get to switch around the order in which you view topics, which is something most notebooks dont provide. Get some index cards and give it a try!Try a HighlighterUse it judiciously. The goal is not to turn your book or notes fluorescent. Most texts already have important concepts in bold typeface. Unless your teacher is very unusual, he or she will almost always mention likely test questions, answers, and concepts. High light them! Some teachers take questions from a test bank, but those who write their own are usually keeping a mental tally of concepts while teaching. Use MnemonicsWhat you are doing here is taking the first letters of words in a sequence you are trying to memorize and making a phrase from them to serve as a memory aid. Example: the sequence of the first few elements in the periodic table H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne could be (well, the one that came to my mind was actually dirty, which is easier to remember) Hi Henry, Lookin Big, Bad, Certainly Nasty, Old Friend - Not! Ok, it isnt great literature. One popular mnemonic device is for metric prefixes: Kilo- Hecto- Deca- Meter (liter, gram) deci- centi- milli- Kangaroos Hopping Down Mountains Drinking Chocolate Milk. Also, such phrases are even easier to memorize if you put them to music.  Work the ProblemsYou work through the example problem in the book or in class just fine. Great! That doesnt mean you understand how to apply the formulas when the conditions or wording changes. Its vital to work problems. I know it seems like a good idea to divide problem sets with classmates or to put down answers from the back of the book when youre short on time, but you truly need to work those problems to practice the skills you need for tests and beyond. Know Your TextDo you have a glossary? Answers to problems in the back? Self-quizzes? Appendices full of useful information? Find that out sooner rather than later. Learn your way around your text. Use the glossary. You cant communicate about a subject without learning the terminology.

Friday, February 14, 2020

The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade - Research Paper Example The trans-Atlantic slave trade has normally been considered only regarding the adults. However, now children’s experiences are also being counted. According to an estimate, children made up one-quarter of the African slaves made to migrate to America. In spite of this big number there is indeed a lack of sources and apparently, no importance is given to what the children experienced, leaving their voices unheard. Enslavement Children were very unwilling to participate in the slave trade and in spite of their age they saw themselves captured and in imprisonment after the war. The women, children and the older people became particularly vulnerable after their men were killed during the war; the ones who were spared death were then ransomed or even sold as slaves. After military expeditions, there were commercial caravans that actually brought textiles and imported goods and traded the slaves with those. Another way of acquiring slaves, particularly children, was through kidnappi ng and this method was more common in certain regions in West Africa. The kidnapping was done when the kids were away from their parents or guardians, maybe simply playing outside, working in fields or taking a calm walk. This was not the only way, however, and the traders even bought children from their families who were more than willing to â€Å"sell† them for money since they were desperate for money and food. Still, others were pawned or bargained for by their parents or used to repay debts or given to be acquitted of any crime they or their family members might have committed. Weak children were also sometimes sold and so were the ones whom their parents thought brought them ill luck. The upcoming events after the capture were a nightmare for the slaves. The traders sold off some children to be sent for the coast while others were sold many times. Several of these kids remained within Africa only and became slaves to whoever bought them. Many others could not survive th e sea route. The ones who were able to reach the coast alive were taken to a factory or post where merchants bought them and kept them inside prisons with the other slaves. These children were then completely stripped and their bodies were rubbed with palm oil. Many times their heads were also shaven. After the merchants had bought their slaves they â€Å"branded† them in order to make sure that their â€Å"property† does not get mixed up with someone else’s and they are able to distinctly make out which their cargo is. The brand was normally a symbol on their chest or back. The Middle Passage According to the slave traders the individuals less than 4’4’’ in height were considered to be children and these children were permitted to stay on the deck with the women. These deck people were, on rare occasions, given certain favors such as giving them old clothes, teaching them how to play certain games or even how to sail. Some children, however , did not play or eat while others preferred to stay with the women and cry all night. If a child was taller than the specified height he was automatically kept with the adults and there they were treated like an adult too. The conditions there were worse and there was no concept of hygiene. If they cried or did not eat or sleep they were punished harshly.